To the Deep End or Out of Their Depth?
The Netherlands, Deep-Sea Mining and the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (1967-1982)
At the negotiations of the Third United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (1973-1982), industrialised states with the capacity to exploit the deep seabed had a fundamentally different vision of a regime regulating deep-sea mining than most developing countries. I investigate the Dutch engagement with the international regulation of deep-sea mining and show that officials of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs initially manoeuvred to position the Netherlands as a bridge builder between the two competing visions of regulating deep-sea mining. However, as Dutch companies ventured into the deep-sea mining business, conflicts between the ministries of Economic Affairs and Foreign Affairs became more prominent, and the Dutch position became more aligned with other industrialised states. Nonetheless, Dutch officials remained sceptical of plans to pursue an alternative legal regime favourable to business, which the Reagan administration championed. That is why the Netherlands ultimately signed the Law of the Sea, despite strong US opposition.
How to Cite
Copyright (c) 2023 Yoram Carboex
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:
a) Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International (CC BY 4.0) that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
b) Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.
c) Authors are permitted to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process.
Authors are explicitly encouraged to deposit their published article in their institutional repository.